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Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths
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Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Heng Huang reports that the major estimating methods, takeoff of quantities from progress plans, representative pricing by database, manuals, quotes, bid results, or experience adjusted for the conditions of the specific package. Crewed approach to labor and equipment, % approach to general conditions, overhead and profit, contingency, and escalation. Some allowances carried for immeasurable items.

Estimating methodologies are not static and must be flexible enough to adjust to the needs of the project stage in the development process. The development process is described by the ov... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2016/03/09  |  310 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Frik Els reports that China burns almost as much coal as the rest of the world combined and is reliant on the fossil fuel for two-thirds of total energy consumption and 80 per cent of its electricity generation. 2013 was the 14th consecutive year of rising coal consumption, output and imports for the country albeit at a slower pace but 2014 could become a turning point as the country wages a war on pollution.

The China July coal production rose in July for the first time in three according the latest official data released by the China Coal Transport and Distribution Association on ... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2014/08/18  |  322 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Sally McPherson blogs that less than a year ago the coal industry was said to be terminal, and yet the commodity has recently staged a comeback, with its steepest price rise in five years. The cargo prices from the Newcastle terminal (Australia) are seen as the benchmark for Asia, and they have jumped by more than 35% since mid-June this year, up to almost $US70 per tonne.

The increase in prices is due to mine closures in Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia, along with policy changes by authorities in China, which has limited its production of coal to 276 days per year, cutting output... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2016/08/27  |  171 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Keith Williams provides a summary of Chinese activities in coal as of 2017 ...

1. China continues to experiment with setting a price for coal by manipulating local production.

2. China bans coal imports from North Korea in 2017 and Mongolia dramatically increased export of coking coal to China in 2016.

3. International coal producers, Indonesia, Australia to benefit, but what about Mongolia?

4. Experts do not think this reflects a fundamental shift in coal industry decline.

5. Paris climate agreement ratification continues, record global t... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2017/04/19  |  87 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Chapter 33 Authors:
G.G. Smith - Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary
A.R. Cameron - Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary
R.M. Bustin - University of British Columbia, Vancouver
Canada has vast coal resources, most of which are found in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, where they are being mined and used extensively for the generation of electricity. Considerable tonnage is shipped abroad for use mainly in the production of metallurgical coke. At various times during the Late Jurassic to Paleocene, tectonic, sedimentological and ecological factors combined to provide f... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2010/07/09  |  689 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Anya Litvak reports that The panic set in around 2010. The trigger words - China, monopoly, national security, iPhones. Yes, iPhones, whose signature features the sleek display, their sound quality draw their properties from rare earth elements, a 15-chunk block of lanthanides at the base of the periodic table, plus the metals scandium and yttrium. By 2010, China had cornered nearly 95 percent of the world production of rare earths and had begun to choke exports, which caused prices to skyrocket.

Bills were introduced in Congress to fast track permits for rare earth mines in the Uni... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2015/08/18  |  303 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

The EPA released its final rule on December 19 regulating the disposal of coal combustion residuals, like fly ash, slag, and bottom ash from power plants.
The rulemaking process was initiated in 2009, following the failure of a coal ash impoundment in Kingston, Tennessee, and places an emphasis on the prevention of surface and groundwater contamination. The final rule classifies CCRs as an industrial solid waste rather than a hazardous material and establishes federal minimum criteria for disposal of CCRs in landfills or surface impoundments. In addition, the final rule contains several ... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2014/12/26  |  309 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Peter Warwick and the USGS report on the recently released Geologic Assessment of Coal in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, USA. This is the fifth in a series of reports by the U.S. Geological Survey on the assessment of the quantity and quality of the national coal deposits that potentially can be mined during the next few decades. For eight years - 1995 - 2003, geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plat... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2015/03/01  |  311 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Jessica Holdman reports that armed with a pick axe, state mineral researchers are sampling North Dakota coal to make a model for finding rare-earth elements in the state coal seams....mostly lignites.

The researchers have been working on the project since 2015, taking 472 samples at 60 sites across the Little Missouri Badlands. Rare-earth elements include valuable materials, including europium, holmium and scandium, and are used in a multitude of modern technology, magnets, hard drives, batteries and lasers, with about 90% of the world supply currently controlled by China. This for... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2017/07/26  |  87 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Zielinski and Finkelman reported in 1997 that coal is largely composed of organic matter, but it is the inorganic matter in coal, minerals and trace elements, that have been cited as possible causes of health, environmental, and technological problems associated with the use of coal. Some trace elements in coal are naturally radioactive.

These radioactive elements include uranium, thorium, and their numerous decay
products, including radium and radon. Although these elements are less chemically toxic than other coal constituents such as As, Se, Hg, and REEs, questions have bee... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2017/06/12  |  58 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Duchesne reports that Texas Mineral Resources Corp. announced that is has signed a MOU with a privately held well-established Pennsylvania coal company to recover and produce scandium and rare-earth byproducts from coal ash and coal overburden. The name of the coal company is undisclosed.

The North American industrial revolution started in Pennsylvania with the systematic adoption of oil as a source of energy in the second half of the 19th century with the emergence of Standard Oil. So it is fitting that the Pennsylvania coalfields should be viewed as a source of new material for cl... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2016/07/08  |  253 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Coal originally began to form during the Carboniferous period, which took place between 360 and 290 million years ago. Put simply, plant matter accumulated in swamps and peat bogs, and after being buried and exposed to high heat and pressure, largely due to the shifting of tectonic plates, it was transformed into coal.

The quality of coal is largely determined by:

1. The type of vegetation the coal originated from.
2. The coal depth of burial.
3. Temperatures and pressures at that depth.
4. How long it took the coal to form.

All of these factors ... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2017/02/19  |  125 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Taggart, et al., report that rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining and processing. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the U.S., have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly-ash composition.

The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geologica... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2016/07/08  |  248 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Mark Fischetti reports in the Scientific American that inexpensive natural gas, lower international coal demand and U.S. environmental regulations have led to a precipitous decline in U.S. coal production, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

After hitting a high in 2008 output in 2015 dropped to the lowest level since 1986. Production fell 10 percent from 2014 alone, the EIA says, with big declines in Kentucky and Virginia. Exports in 2015 decreased by 21 percent compared with 2014.... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2016/01/14  |  252 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Texas Mineral Resources Corp., an exploration company targeting the heavy rare-earths and a variety of other high-value elements and industrial minerals, announce that DOE Office of Fossil Energy selected a Texas Mineral Resources consortium assembled by Texas Mineral Resources as one of only three projects to each receive a $1 million grant as part of a two-phase $23.75 million Funding Opportunity Announcement published in September 2016 (FOA-0001627)... Production of Rare-Earth Elements from Domestic U.S. Coal and Coal Byproducts.

TMRC project partners include Inventure Renewable... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2017/06/12  |  62 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Harleigh Hobbs reports that DOE has announced that three projects have been selected to receive approximately US$3 million for research aimed at producing salable rare-earth elements (REEs) from domestic coal and coal byproducts (Ash?). In addition, DOE has announced the availability of an additional US$3.95 million for projects in three new topic areas to accelerate separation and extraction processes for REEs.

REEs are a series of 17 chemical elements found in the Earth crust. Due to their unique chemical properties, REEs are essential components of technologies spanning a range o... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2017/06/12  |  51 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

John Pastor reports that Virginia Tech engineers have developed a way to extract valuable rare earth minerals from coal and coal byproducts. Eventually they hope to construct a mobile pilot plant in Southwest Virginia. With supplies uncertain of essential materials needed to make products ranging from smart phones to windmills, Virginia Tech researchers are working with academic and industry partners in a $1 million pilot project to recover rare earth elements from coal.

Funded in part by a U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory grant, Virginia Tech engineers will test HHS t... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2016/03/16  |  298 Report Broken   Tell A Friend

Index / Coal / Exploration, Production, Coal Ash, Rare Earths

Clyde Russell reports that if you believe that the thermal coal rally this year has been largely on the back of rising Chinese imports, it follows that any sign of moderation in demand in the biggest buyer would raise a red flag of caution.

That banner may be in the process of being hoisted, with shipping data suggesting August imports of the fuel used mainly for power generation may be the lowest for six months. Ship-tracking data compiled by Thomson Reuters Commodity Research and Forecasts estimate that 13.07 million tonnes of coal will arrive in China in August, down substantiall... More →
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Find Out More »  |  Open Resource  |  2016/08/19  |  151 Report Broken   Tell A Friend
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